Developmental Milestones


Age Physical Development Social and Emotional Development Intellectual Development Language Development
At Birth Lies in fetal position with knees tucked up. Unable to raise head. Head falls backwards if pulled to sit. Reacts to sudden sound. Closes eye to bright light. Opens eye when held in an upright position. Bonds with mother. Smiles at mother. Beginning to develop concepts e.g. becomes aware of physical sensations such as hunger. Explores using his senses. Make eye contact and cry to indicate need. Cries vigorously. Respond to high-pitched tones by moving his limbs.
3 Months Pelvis is flat when lying down. Lower back is still weak. Back and neck firm when held sitting. Grasps objects placed in hands. Turns head round to have a look at objects. Establishes eye contact. Squeals with pleasure appropriately. Reacts with pleasure to familiar routines. Discriminates smile. Takes increasing interest in his surroundings. Shows interest in playthings. Understand cause and effect� e.g. if you tie one end of a ribbon to his toe and the other to a mobile, he will learn to move the mobile. Attentive to sounds made by your voice. Indicates needs with differentiated cries. Beginning to vocalise. Smile in response to speech.
6 Months Can lift head and shoulders. Sits up with support. Enjoys standing and jumping. Transfers objects from one hand to the other. Pulls self up to sit and sits erect with supports. Rolls over prone to supine. Palmer grasp of cube. Well established visual sense. Responds to different tones of mother. May show ‘stranger shyness’. Takes stuff to mouth. Finds feet interesting. Understand objects and know what to expect of them. Understand ‘up’ and ‘down’ and make appropriate gestures, such as raising his arms to be picked. Double syllable sounds such as ‘mama’ and ‘dada’. Laughs in play. Screams with annoyance.
9 Months Sits unsupported. Grasps with thumb and index finger. Releases toys by dropping. Wiggles and crawls. Sits unsupported. Picks up objects with pincer grasp. Looks for fallen objects. Holds bottle. Is visually attentive. Apprehensive about strangers. Imitates hand-clapping. Clings to familiar adults. Shows interest in picture books. Watches activities of others with interest. Babbles tunefully. Vocalises to attract attention. Enjoy communicating with sounds.
1 Year Stands holding furniture. Stands alone for a second or two, then collapses with a bump. Walks holding one hand. Bends down and picks up objects. Pulls to stand and sits deliberately. May walk alone. Holds spoon. Points at objects. Picks up small objects. Cooperates with dressing. Waves goodbye. Understands simple commands. Demonstrate affection. Participate in nursery rhymes. Responds to simple instructions. Uses trial-and-error to learn about objects. Babbles 2 or 3 words repeatedly. Responds to simple instructions. Understands several words. Uses jargon.
15 Months Can crawl up stairs frontwards. Kneels unaided. Balance is poor. Can crawl down stairs backwards. Builds 2 block tower. Can place objects precisely. Turns pages of picture book. Helps with dressing. Indicates soiled or wet paints. Emotionally dependent on familiar adult. Is very curious. Can communicate needs. Jabbers freely and loudly.
18 Months Squats to pick up toys. Can walk alone. Drinks without spilling. Picks up toy without falling over. Shows preference for one hand. Gets up/down stairs holding onto rail. Begins to jump with both feet. Can build a tower of 3 or 4 cubes and throw a ball. Plays alone near familiar adult. Demands constant mothering. Drinks from a cup with both hands. Feeds self with a spoon. Attains bowel control. Tries to sing. Imitates domestic activities. Enjoys simple picture books. Explores environment. Knows the names of parts of his body. Uses ‘Jargon’. Uses many intelligible words. Repeats an adult’s last word. Jabbering established.
2 Years Can kick large ball. Squats with ease. Rises without using hands. Builds tower of six cubes. Able to run. Walks up and down stairs 2 feet per step. Builds tower of 6 cubes. Turns picture book pages one at a time. Throws tantrum if frustrated. Can put on shoes. Completely spoon feeds and drinks from cup. Is aware of physical needs. Dry by day. Joins 2-3 words in sentences. Recognises details in pictures. Uses own name to refer to self. Talks to self continuously. Speaks over two hundred words, and accumulate new words very rapidly.
3 Years Can jump off lower steps. Can pedal and steer tricycle. Goes up stairs 1 foot per step and downstairs 2 feet per step. Copies circle. Imitates cross and draws man on request. Builds tower of 9 cubes. Has good pencil control. Can cut paper with scissors. Can thread large beads on a string. Plays co-operatively . Undresses with assistance. Imaginary companions.Tries very hard to please. Uses spoon and fork. Relates present activities and past experiences. Can draw a person with a head. Can sort objects into simple categories. Constantly asks questions. Speaks in sentences. Talks to himself when playing.
4 Years Sits with knees crossed. Ball games skill increases. Goes down stairs one foot per step. Imitates gate with cubes. Copies a cross. Can turn sharp corners when running. Builds a tower of 10 cubes. Argues with other children. Plans games co-operatively. Dresses and undresses with assistance. Attends to own toilet needs. Developing a sense of humour. Wants to be independent. Counts up to 20. Asks meanings of words. Questioning at its height. Draw recognisable house. Many infantile substitutions in speech. Uses correct grammar most of the time. Enjoy counting up to twenty by repetition.
5 Years Skips. Well developed ball skills. Can walk on along a thin line. Skips on both feet and hops. Draws a man and copies a triangle. Gives age. Can copy an adult�s writing. Colours pictures carefully. Builds steps with 3-4 cubes. Chooses own friends. Dresses and undresses alone. Shows caring attitudes towards others. Copes well with personal needs. Writes name. Draws a detailed person. Matches most colours. Understands numbers. Fluent speech with few infantile substitutions in speech. Talks about the past, present and future with a good sense of time.
6 Years Learns to skip with rope. Copies a diamond. Knows right from left and number of fingers. Ties shoe laces. Stubborn and demanding. Eager for fresh experiences. May be quarrelsome with friends. Draws with precision and to detail. Developing reading skills well. May write independently. Fluent speech. Can pronounce majority of the sounds of his own language. Talk fluently and with confidence